凯旋棋牌

如何看待我國就業形勢

來源:《求是》2020/01 作者:人力資源和社會保障部黨組 2020-01-01 15:32:06

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  一、為什么近年來我國能夠保持就業形勢穩定

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  民營企業是吸納就業的重要渠道。重慶市梁平區把發展民營企業作為促進區域經濟發展、提升就業水平的重要抓手。目前梁平工業園區共有民營企業270戶,吸納失業人員、被征地農民等2萬余人就地就近就業。圖為重慶宏美達欣興實業(集團)有限公司梁平分公司的紡織工人在崗位上忙碌。 中國勞動保障報供圖 劉輝/攝

  經濟規模擴大的有力拉動。習近平總書記指出,解決就業問題根本要靠發展。把經濟發展蛋糕做大,把就業蛋糕做大。黨的十八大以來,我們堅持把穩定和擴大就業作為經濟運行合理區間的下限,創新實施區間調控、定向調控、精準調控等宏觀調控方式,穩定了經濟增長,夯實了就業的基本盤。目前,我國經濟保持平穩健康發展態勢,仍處于中高速增長區間,在世界范圍內仍居前列。經濟總量持續增加,對就業的拉動能力相應增強,帶動了就業容量不斷擴大。

  產業結構優化的推動。如果說經濟發展是擴大就業的“火車頭”,那么合理的經濟結構就是拉動就業的“加速器”。黨的十八大以來,黨中央、國務院堅定不移推動高質量發展、推進供給側結構性改革,以質量和效益的提升拓展就業增長的新空間。大力發展電子商務、服務外包等現代服務業,充分發掘新型工業化、信息化、城鎮化、農業現代化進程中蘊含的巨大潛力;堅決化解過剩產能,壓縮落后產能;協同推動東部率先、中部崛起、西部開發和東北振興“四大板塊”發展,加快實施“一帶一路”建設、粵港澳大灣區建設、長三角一體化發展,著力推進京津冀協同發展、長江經濟帶發展、黃河流域生態保護和高質量發展。產業、城鄉、區域結構進一步優化,使得經濟增長的就業彈性持續增強。

  改革紅利的釋放助推了就業主渠道的拓展。個體私營經濟和小微企業日益成為吸納就業的主渠道。黨的十八大以來,簡政放權、放管結合、優化服務持續推進,政府效能進一步優化,有力支撐了經濟動能轉換,為促進創新創業營造了良好環境。同時,大眾創業、萬眾創新扶持力度不斷加大,財政支持政策得到加強,普惠性稅收措施不斷完善,融資模式進一步優化創新。“雙創”成為時代熱潮,市場活力競相迸發,市場主體井噴式增長,創造了大量就業機會,創業帶動就業的倍增效應不斷顯現。2019年前10月,我國日均新登記企業數1.97萬戶,新創設企業提供了許多新的就業機會。

  政策效應的發揮促進重點群體就業。有力有效的政策措施是彌補市場不足、穩定和擴大就業的重要支撐。黨的十八大以來,我們根據形勢發展變化和勞動者的新期待,不斷發展和完善積極的就業政策體系。統籌優化人力資源供給與改善勞動力市場需求,強化就業政策與經濟政策、產業政策、社會政策之間的協同聯動,將就業與創業緊密結合;織密織牢促進高校畢業生和農民工就業創業的經緯線,注重兜住就業困難人員就業底線,同時注重完善改革進程中受影響勞動者、全面小康建設中貧困勞動者就業創業的政策體系;調整提高部分就業補貼標準、擴大就業補貼享受范圍,創新推出了創業基金、求職補貼、創業補貼等利民惠民新舉措。2018年11月,為應對外部環境變化給就業帶來的影響,國務院出臺促進就業新政策,打出穩企業穩崗位、強培訓促就業、重服務兜底線的政策“組合拳”,進一步充實完善了就業政策體系。2018年底召開的中央經濟工作會議明確提出實施就業優先政策,2019年的政府工作報告明確要求就業優先政策要全面發力,并首次將就業優先政策置于宏觀政策層面來考量。中國特色的就業政策體系成為穩形勢、助發展的重要利器。

  二、如何看待當前和今后一個時期的就業形勢

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  “雙創”已成為時代熱潮,創業帶動就業的倍增效應不斷顯現。2019年10月14日,第五屆中國“互聯網+”大學生創新創業大賽冠軍爭奪賽在浙江杭州舉行,來自清華大學、浙江大學等高校的創業者攜創新創業項目展開路演角逐。圖為多名創業者在互動提問。 中新社記者 王剛/攝

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  三、保持就業形勢長期穩定需要從哪些方面發力

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  貴州省黔南布依族苗族自治州三都水族自治縣中和鎮紅星村開辦理論培訓和實用技能培訓“雙培”課堂,促進水族同胞就業增收。圖為2019年11月17日,100余名水族同胞在“傳文化揚自信,學技能奔小康”“雙培”課堂學習水族剪紙技藝。 中新社記者 瞿宏倫/攝

  突出就業優先導向。健全目標導向優先機制,把穩定和擴大就業作為區間調控的下限,把就業作為經濟發展的優先目標,納入宏觀調控體系,精準調控、相機調控。健全宏觀政策聯動機制,推動產業、財稅、金融、貿易、教育、社保等政策圍繞穩定和促進就業綜合發力,促進經濟增長與擴大就業良性循環。健全就業影響評估機制,在實施重大政策、重大工程和重要專項行動時同步評估對就業影響,同步制定涉及勞動者的分流安置方案。

  著力推進減負,穩企穩崗穩就業。做好“降、返、補”三方面工作,加快推進各項惠企舉措落地,讓企業有更多獲得感。“降”,就是落實好降低社會保險費率綜合方案,持續加強調研督導,及時評估實施效果,確保企業社保繳費實際負擔有實質性下降,穩定企業發展預期。“返”,就是落實好失業保險返還政策,對不裁員少裁員的企業,持續加大穩崗支持力度。“補”,重點是對符合條件企業吸納勞動者就業,落實好創業擔保貸款貼息額度提升、稅收減免限額提升、及時給予社保補貼等政策。同時,加強對企業的用工指導服務,支持開展企業間的用工調劑,緩解招工難題,鼓勵企業改善用工環境和薪資待遇,穩定員工隊伍。

  著力促進創業,積極帶動就業。凯旋棋牌強化政策扶持,加大稅收優惠、擔保貸款、資金補貼、創業培訓等實施力度,支持高校畢業生、返鄉農民工等創業,支持高校、科研院所專業技術人員離崗創業。強化創業服務,提升公共就業創業服務機構的服務能力,支持各類創業孵化基地和園區建設,開展創業服務展示交流、創業大賽等活動。營造良好創業環境,加快清理和消除阻礙創業的各種行業性、地區性、經營性壁壘,放寬市場準入限制,簡化立項、審批和辦證手續。同時,加大對新就業形態的支持,完善新就業形態從業人員社會保障等政策。

  著力推進職業技能提升行動,提高勞動者就業能力。針對在崗職工、困難企業轉崗職工、就業重點群體、貧困勞動力等參加培訓,落實一系列補貼和扶持政策;針對企業、技工院校、職業院校、培訓機構,落實支持政策和措施,支持企業開展在崗轉崗培訓,開展好各類重點群體就業創業培訓,加強建檔立卡貧困勞動力技能培訓,推動培訓對象廣覆蓋。廣泛調動各方積極性,管好用好提升行動專賬資金,簡化補貼申領程序,引導各方面承接大規模培訓。不斷提升培訓質量,探索急需緊缺人才目錄編制發布制度,推動工學一體、校企合作,健全培訓績效評估體系,支持實訓基地建設。

  著力加強全方位就業服務,提升就業服務水平。凯旋棋牌健全覆蓋省、市、縣、街道(鄉鎮)、社區(村)五級公共就業服務網絡,廣泛提供政策咨詢、信息發布、職業介紹、職業指導等有針對性的公共就業服務。積極推動公共就業服務標準化信息化建設,建立健全服務標準體系,推進智慧化服務,打造全國統一的服務辦事信息化平臺,全面推進“互聯網+公共就業服務”。推行便民化服務,簡化優化服務流程,推廣“最多跑一次”等便民舉措。組織開展系列公共就業服務活動,針對不同勞動者打造“春風行動”、“金秋招聘月”等特色服務品牌,努力實現“月月有招聘、時時有就業服務”。同時,加強勞動力市場監管,嚴厲打擊非法職介、性別歧視等侵權行為。

  著力促進重點群體就業,兜牢民生底線。凯旋棋牌持續把高校畢業生就業作為重中之重,深入實施就業促進、創業引領、基層成長計劃,做實離校未就業高校畢業生信息臺賬,集中開展專項活動,推廣精準招聘平臺,有組織地開展就業見習,繼續引導高校畢業生到城鄉基層、中西部地區、艱苦邊遠地區和中小企業就業。聚焦最困難的建檔立卡貧困勞動力集中發力,全面提升勞務組織化程度,把政策、資金、培訓等重點用在貧困勞動力上,著力做好“三區三州”等深度貧困地區、易地搬遷集中安置點就業幫扶工作,增強職業技能培訓針對性實效性,促進貧困勞動力就業增收。加大對失業人員特別是就業困難人員的幫扶力度,繼續開展“一對一”就業困難人員援助,運用公益性崗位兜底幫扶,確保零就業家庭動態清零。

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